2009-2010 Undergraduate Catalog 
    
    Oct 05, 2022  
2009-2010 Undergraduate Catalog [ARCHIVED CATALOG]

Course Descriptions


 

Music Ensemble

  
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    MEN 231 - Symphony Orchestra


    Performance of standard and non-standard orchestral literature as well as accompaniments for oratorio and concerto performances. Membership is open to all University students. Two and one-half hours of rehearsal per week. Both semesters.

    Credits: 1/0
  
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    MEN 232 - Wind Ensemble


    Performance of standard literature and non-standard works for wind ensemble. Membership is open to all University students by audition. Two and one-half hours of rehearsal per week. Both semesters.

    Credits: 1/0
  
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    MEN 233 - Brass Ensemble


    Performance of standard concert literature as well as transcriptions of hymns and sacred songs. Membership is open to all students. One hour of rehearsal per week. Both semesters.

    Credits: 1/0
  
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    MEN 234 - Handbell Choir


    Performance of standard literature written for English handbells. Membership is open to all students. Sight-reading ability is required. Three hours of rehearsal per week. Both semesters.

    Credits: 1/0
  
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    MEN 235 - Jazz Ensemble


    Performing experience in standard jazz literature. Improvisation is stressed and jazz performance techniques are discussed. Audition required. Open to all students. Both semesters.

    Credits: 1/0
  
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    MEN 236 - Chamber Music


    The study and performance of standard chamber repertoire based on student instrumentation, including independent and coached preparation. Both semesters.

    Credits: 1/0
  
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    MEN 241 - Chorale


    Performance of standard choral works selected from various periods and styles. Emphasis is placed upon sacred choral literature. The Chorale performs on and off campus during the school year and takes an extended annual tour. Membership is open to all students on the basis of audition/interview. Four hours of rehearsal per week. Both semesters.

    Credits: 1/0
  
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    MEN 242 - Chamber Singers


    Approximately 10-16 voices selected for their vocal quality and sight reading ability. Performance of standard chamber literature selected from various periods and styles. Membership is open to all students on the basis of audition/interview. Three hours of rehearsal per week. Both semesters.

    Credits: 1/0
  
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    MEN 243 - Community Chorus


    Performance of a major choral work with orchestra annually. Membership is open to all students. Two hours of rehearsal per week, beginning in mid-October with a concert in early February. Register non credit in the fall and one credit in the spring. Both semesters.

    Credits: 1/0
  
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    MEN 251 - Hosanna


    A mixed ensemble that performs contemporary Christian music and hymn arrangements for ministry at churches, youth meetings, retreats and banquets. Membership is open to all students. Two hours of rehearsal per week. Both semesters.

    Credits: 1/0
  
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    MEN 252 - Joy


    A women’s trio/quartet performing contemporary Christian music and hymn arrangements for ministry at churches, youth meetings, retreats and banquets. Membership is open to all students. Two hours of rehearsal per week. Both semesters.

    Credits: 1/0
  
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    MEN 253 - Opera Workshop


    An introduction to the world of opera and music theater, giving attention to dramatic movement, emotional interpretation, staging principles, scenery, props, costumes, makeup and lighting. Either semester.

    Credits: 1/0
  
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    MEN 261 - Accompanying Techniques I


    A study of the piano as an accompanying medium for standard vocal and instrumental literature, including congregational singing. Special emphasis is given to stylistic problems, orchestral reductions and ensemble musicianship. This course is designed as a two-semester course (one credit each). Semester I (Fall) emphasizes various areas of sacred music accompaniment that the student will encounter (hymn playing, solo and anthem accompaniment). Also explored are recitative, aria and chorus accompaniment, including an introduction to basic performance practice as it relates to the organ and harpsichord. Semester II (Spring) focuses on the study of accompaniments for art songs, operatic arias and instrumental works. The keyboard major must pass each semester once for credit but is permitted to take either part multiple times as well. The course satisfies an ensemble requirement each semester taken. First semester.

    Credits: 1
  
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    MEN 262 - Accompanying Techniques II


    A study of the piano as an accompanying medium for standard vocal and instrumental literature, including congregational singing. Special emphasis is given to stylistic problems, orchestral reductions and ensemble musicianship. This course is designed as a two-semester course (one credit each). Semester I (Fall) emphasizes various areas of sacred music accompaniment that the student will encounter (hymn playing, solo and anthem accompaniment). Also explored are recitative, aria and chorus accompaniment, including an introduction to basic performance practice as it relates to the organ and harpsichord. Semester II (Spring) focuses on the study of accompaniments for art songs, operatic arias and instrumental works. The keyboard major must pass each semester once for credit but is permitted to take either part multiple times as well. The course satisfies an ensemble requirement each semester taken. Second semester.

    Credits: 1

Natural Science

  
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    SCI 201 - Introduction to the Natural Sciences


    An introduction to the natural sciences including the philosophy, methodologies, processes, tools, and historical development of the natural sciences. Both semesters.

    Credits: 3
  
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    SCI 331 - Physical Science


    A course designed to introduce the student to the basic terminology, processes and reasoning procedures of the physical sciences. The items discussed include the history and development of the disciplines of physics and chemistry. Both semesters.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    SCI 201

    Credits: 3
  
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    SCI 332 - Geology


    A study of the various physical structures and activities indigenous to the earth. The course examines the contributions of mineralogy, petrology, diastrophism and stratigraphy, as well as modern geologic theories such as plate tectonics and continental drift. Second semester.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    SCI 201

    Credits: 3
  
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    SCI 333 - Astronomy


    A study of the basic concepts of astronomy, including the various stellar objects, and the mechanics of motion observed in the solar system and elsewhere in the universe. Additional emphasis is placed on developing familiarity with the major stars and constellations visible in our sky. First semester.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    SCI 201

    Credits: 3
  
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    SCI 334 - Physics


    A course in calculus-based physics designed especially for Secondary Education majors with a concentration in mathematics. It enables students to examine and manipulate the concepts of vectors, motion, work, energy, momentum, equilibration, gravitation, periodic motion and fluids, temperature, heat and thermodynamics. Second semester. Offered alternate years.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    MAT 231, SCI 201

    Credits: 3
  
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    SCI 335 - Environmental Science


    A course designed to study the interrelationships of the world’s communities and ecosystems, and the influence of human activities on their future stability. Particular emphasis is placed on an understanding of present air, water and soil resources, how they might be sustained in light of modern society and its practices, and what constitutes appropriate societal and personal responses. Both semesters.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    SCI 201

    Credits: 3
  
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    SCI 336 - Earth Science


    A course that integrates the knowledge of several scientific fields in the study of our planet and its global environmental concerns. Students study the interactions of four spheres–lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere–which are related in a complex and continuously interacting whole. This course includes laboratory sessions. First semester.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    SCI 201

    Credits: 3
  
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    SCI 337 - Chemistry


    A course that presents the ideas and methods of chemical science in a quantitative as well as conceptual fashion. This course assumes no previous science background and emphasizes the fundamentals of measurement, atomic theory, bonding, solutions, acids and bases, salts, equations, chemical arithmatic, and energy transfer. Illustrations and applications of concepts are drawn from everyday life. Laboratory work includes basic techniques of qualitative and quantitative measurements and the application of chemical principles to real life situations. This course includes laboratory sessions. Second semester.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    SCI 201

    Credits: 3
  
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    SCI 338 - Marine Science


    A course that explores the world ocean and the geological, chemical, physical, and biological processes which control evolution of the ocean basins, the sea floor, and its sediment cover; the origin and composition of sea water and its physical properties; waves, ocean currents, and ocean circulation and tides; and life in the sea, with an emphasis on marine ecology. This course includes laboratory sessions. Second semester.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    SCI 201

    Credits: 3
  
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    SCI 341 - Biology 1


    A course designed to introduce the basic structures and processes that control the growth and development of organisms. Emphasis is placed on questions of origin, cell functions and genetics as they apply to the human body. Laboratory activities are designed to allow students to experience and apply some of the concepts of the course. This course includes laboratory sessions. Both semesters.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    SCI 201

    Credits: 3
  
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    SCI 342 - Anatomy and Physiology


    A course designed to expand the student’s knowledge of the human body. The physiological systems of the body are covered, with emphasis on their interrelated functions. Both semesters.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    SCI 201

    Credits: 3
  
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    SCI 441 - Biology 2


    A course that builds on the concepts of Biology 1 and is an introduction to the diversity of organisms and an investigation of how the structures of plants and animals allow them to survive and function in their environments. This course explores proposed evolutionary mechanisms and relationships between organisms and examines how organisms interact with each other in their environment. This course includes laboratory sessions. First semester.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    SCI 341

    Credits: 3

Pastoral Ministries

  
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    PMN 321 - Pastoral Care


    A course that considers a biblical foundation for pastoral ministry and the traditional roles of the pastor. The course includes but is not limited to calling, character, visitation, weddings, counseling, funerals, ordinances, preaching, evangelism, and ordination. Second semester.

    Credits: 3
  
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    PMN 421 - Church Administration Issues


    A course that considers the role of the pastor as the leader/administrator of a local church. The course includes but is not limited to leadership, vision, change, conflict management, personality profiles, working with boards and agendas, legal and ethical issues, finances and budgets, staffing, church growth, and self-care. First semester.

    Credits: 3
  
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    PMN 431 - Homiletics I


    An introductory course instructing students in the rudiments of expository preaching. Emphasis is placed upon the preparation of expository sermons, sermonic research and the development of communication skills. First semester.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    COM 101

    Credits: 3
  
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    PMN 432 - Homiletics II


    A course designed to deepen the student’s understanding of the meaning and nature of expository preaching. Different types of expository sermons are examined, constructed and delivered by the student. Attention is also given to the oral reading of Scripture. Second semester.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    PMN 431

    Credits: 3

Philosophy

  
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    PHI 301 - Philosophy


    A survey of the history of philosophy and philosophical problems associated with metaphysics, epistemology, ethics and the philosophy of religion. Special attention is given to topics of interest (both historical and contemporary) to the Christian thinker. Both semesters.

    Credits: 3
  
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    PHI 431 - Contemporary Christian Philosophy


    An interactive study of contemporary philosophy of religion, specifically those contributions made by evangelicals on topics such as the existence and nature of God, the problem of evil, religious epistemology, the soul and other relevant topics. The focus is on philosophical reflection since 1980 and its response to logical positivism, continental philosophy and postmodernism. Second semester.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    PHI 301

    Credits: 3
  
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    PHI 432 - Ethics


    A study of historical ethical theories, including an in-depth analysis of the Christian ethic and an analysis of contemporary ethical questions from the perspective of the Christian ethic. Included is an analysis of Christian virtues. Both semesters.

    Credits: 3
  
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    PHI 441 - The Philosophy of C.S. Lewis


    A course that explores the philosophical and apologetic writings of C.S. Lewis. The focus of the course is on the thought and argumentation, as opposed to the literary qualities, of his canon. Application is made to the student’s worldview and to the task of apologetics. Second semester. Offered alternate years.

    Credits: 3

Physical Education

  
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    PED 101 - Life Management


    A course that studies life management skills and emphasizes the responsibility of each individual to maintain a healthy lifestyle. The following topics are studied: stress management, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, sexually transmitted diseases, addictive behavior, weight management, nutrition, and personal safety. Both semesters.

    Credits: 1
  
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    PED 131 - Cross-Country Skiing


    A course designed to provide basic instruction in cross-country ski equipment and techniques, including the classical and skate methods. The student will develop a personal cross-country ski training program culminating in a 40-kilometer ski on the world-class Birkebeiner Ski Trail. Offered only at Wisconsin Wilderness Campus. Second semester.

    Credits: 1

Psychology

  
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    PSY 101 - General Psychology


    A course designed to provide a survey of the field of psychology, acquainting students with theoretical and practical aspects of human behavior and mental processes. Both semesters.

    Credits: 3
  
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    PSY 321 - Human Development


    A study of human growth and development throughout the life span. Emphasis is placed on the biological, cognitive, affective and social domains. The impact of the environment on normal functioning is studied in specific settings. Both semesters.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    PSY 101

    Credits: 3
  
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    PSY 322 - Educational Psychology


    A study of psychological models, research and principles applied to the process of education, with emphasis on individual differences, developmental models and learning theory. Both semesters.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    PSY 101

    Credits: 3
  
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    PSY 323 - Adolescent Development


    An examination of the individual, interpersonal, and contextual changes and behaviors that are part of normal adolescent development. The course is designed to familiarize the student with the physical, cognitive, psycho-social, emotional, and spiritual changes that are associated with adolescence. The primary focus is on normal development, but some common problems of adolescents are also discussed. Either semester.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    PSY 101

    Credits: 3
  
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    PSY 421 - Abnormal Psychology


    An examination of historical perspectives, principles of clinical diagnosis, possible causes of behavior and classical schools of therapy. First semester.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    PSY 101

    Credits: 3

Social Science

  
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    SOC 201 - Sociology


    A study of social structure and human interaction in society. The focus is upon interrelationships within the social institutions of society-the family, school, church, business and government. Both semesters.

    Credits: 3
  
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    SOC 231 - Human and Cultural Diversity


    A course that explores attitudes toward differences and the effect of human diversity on social interaction and service delivery. Attention is given to differences based on race, ethnicity and nationality; gender and sexual orientation; culture and lifestyle; and socioeconomic status. Both semesters.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    SOC 201

    Credits: 3
  
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    SOC 331 - Cultural Anthropology


    An introduction to the study of human culture. A survey of anthropological thought and theory is included. Special attention is given to cultural dynamics, change processes, and social structures. Issues such as globalization and urbanization are also explored. Both semesters.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    SOC 201

    Credits: 3
  
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    SOC 332 - Macroeconomics


    A study of production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. The focus is upon understanding basic economic principles and their effect on the world of the student. Second semester.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    SOC 201

    Credits: 3
  
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    SOC 333 - Political Science


    An examination of the philosophical foundations of political action. Emphasis is given to understanding current events through a study of the historical foundations of American political thought and a survey of modern ideologies. Both semesters.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    SOC 201

    Credits: 3
  
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    SOC 431 - Group Dynamics


    An introduction to the study of group processes. The student examines various theoretical models of interaction through experience-oriented classroom sessions. Major topics of discussion include leadership, decision making, communication, conflict, power and problem solving. Both semesters.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    SOC 201

    Credits: 3
  
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    SOC 432 - The Family


    A study of the family as the basic unit of society. The family is examined throughout the life cycle. Biblical, social and cultural perspectives are used to study traditional and nontraditional family functioning. Second semester.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    SOC 201

    Credits: 3
  
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    SOC 433 - Geography


    A course providing an overview of the world’s physical features and political designations with an emphasis on regional identification. The five themes of geography become the outline of the study of individual concepts. Either semester.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    SOC 201

    Credits: 3
  
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    SOC 441 - Research in Social Science Issues


    An overview of the theory and application of research.  The discipline focus is primarily in political science and sociology with a secondary emphasis on history and the other social sciences.  The course will be inductively oriented with a particular content development of issues in Pennsylvania history, culture, and government. Second semester. Offered alternate years.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    SOC 201 and either one additional social science course or permission of the instructor

    Credits: 3

Social Work

  
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    SWK 101 - Social Work Basics


    A study of the profession of social work and social work education at PBU. Focus is on the Biblical doctrine of social responsibility, social welfare history, policy and the unfolding of Social Work to help the present day. Emphasis is placed on the foundational development of the knowledge, the understanding and application of social work values, and the beginning development of generalist social work practice skills. First semester.

    Credits: 3
  
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    SWK 102 - Human and Cultural Diversity


    A course that explores attitudes toward differences and the effect of human diversity on social interaction and service delivery. Attention is given to differences based on race, ethnicity and nationality; gender and sexual orientation; culture and lifestyle; and socioeconomic status. Both semesters.

    Credits: 3
  
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    SWK 201 - Social Work Experience


    A pre-professional course for students in the social work profession. This course includes field practicum orientation and training, and social work field experience in order to develop a better understanding of the vocation of social work, the populations needing social services, and the environments where the social work profession exists. First semester.

    Credits: 2
  
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    SWK 202 - Social Work Organizations


    A course that focuses on the understanding of managerial and leadership functions in human service organizations from the perspective of beginning generalist social work practice. It provides an overview of how supervisors and managers think, their concerns, priorities and world views. It also explores the daily activities of direct service workers in various social service organizations. Second semester.

    Credits: 3
  
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    SWK 321 - Social Policy: Formation and Analysis


    A course that focuses on five facets of social policy: 1. The significance of societal values and the historical context in the creation of policy 2. The process of policy formulation 3. Two established frameworks of analyzing policy on national and local levels 4. Policy activism in creating/shaping new and modifying existing policy and, 5. Three criterion for social and economic justice -equity, equality and fairness. First semester.

    Credits: 3
  
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    SWK 322 - Human Behavior in the Social Environment


    A course that has a person-in-environment focus, and examines the relationship among human biological, psychological, spiritual and sociocultural systems and their effect on human behavior and development. Knowledge and theory about the range of social systems in which individuals live such as families, groups, organizations, institutions and communities are also examined. The course also examines ways in which systems promote or deter people in maintaining optimal health and well-being. Focus is given to the flow between the micro, mezzo and macro dimensions of intervention. Attention is given to determinants of behavior such as age, ethnicity, race, social class, sexual orientation and physical disabilities. Second semester.

    Credits: 3
  
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    SWK 431 - Social Work Practice I


    Course content prepares students for beginning generalist practice with systems at the micro level of intervention, particularly with individuals. Some attention is given to working with families. Focus is on the professional use of self, and developing knowledge and skills at a beginning professional level. Approaches and skills for practice with clients from differing backgrounds is also studied. Coordinated with Seminar and Field I. First semester.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    Open only to B.S.W. candidates.

    Credits: 3
  
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    SWK 432 - Seminar and Field I


    One seminar session each week in which the field instruction (minimum of one day each week in a professional social work setting) is coordinated with the classroom instruction of Social Work Practice I. The class provides a structured learning experience that provides students with opportunities to compare their field placement experiences, and integrate faith theory and practice. The course also examines the use of professional supervision to enhance learning and the development of professional use of self. First semester.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    Open only to B.S.W. candidates. Application procedure is required for field practicum. Must be taken concurrently with SWK 431.

    Credits: 2
  
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    SWK 441 - Social Work Practice II


    A study of knowledge, values and skills to social work practice from a beginning generalist perspective. Course content includes approaches and skills in client intervention at the micro (individual) and mezzo (family) level of social work practice. The course examines the integration of theory and practice. Coordinated with Seminar and Field II. Second semester.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    Open only to B.S.W. candidates.

    Credits: 3
  
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    SWK 442 - Seminar and Field II


    One seminar session each week in which the field instruction (minimum of one day each week in a professional social work setting) is coordinated with the classroom instruction of Social Work Practice II. The class provides a structured learning experience that provides students with opportunities to compare their field placement experiences, and integrate faith, theory and practice. The course also examines the use of professional supervision to enhance learning and the development of professional use of self. Second semester.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    Open only to B.S.W. candidates. Must be taken concurrently with SWK 441.

    Credits: 2
  
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    SWK 451 - Social Science Statistics


    Introduction to social science statistics in the context of its use in empirical research. The course teaches an understanding of descriptive statistics, including graphs, central tendencies, variability and correlation/regression. The course also teaches inferential statistics, including the concepts of sampling distributions, hypothesis testing, cross tabulation and commonly used statistical tests (t, F, Chi Square tests) as well as a brief discussion of multivariate analysis. Students use SPSS Statistical Software. Both semesters.

    Credits: 3
  
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    SWK 452 - Social Research


    Orientation to the basic principles of social research. Emphasis is on developing research mindedness and critical thinking, leading to use of research methods for problem solving in beginning generalist social work practice, and the evaluation of existing research. This course focuses on the completion of a research project that models the research process, stressing the importance of ethics in research. Both semesters.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    Open only to B.S.W. candidates; other students may elect this course with approval of the Department chair.

    Credits: 3
  
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    SWK 461 - Aging Issues and Services


    An overview course designed to familiarize students to issues connected to aging while exploring their own attitudes about aging in order to prepare them to engage older people with their professional disciplines. Topics include aging demographics; physiological, social, and psychological changes; services and interventions; social policies; legal issues; models of successful aging; and biblical perspectives. First semester.

    Credits: 3
  
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    SWK 472 - Social Entrepreneurship


    A course designed to introduce the concept of social entrepreneurship–the identifying and solving of social problems on a large scale by using innovative solutions. The student combines the disciplines of both business and social work and learns to identify problems, analyze the environment, develop strategies, and implement solutions to create and sustain high performing nonprofit organizations. Second semester.

    Credits: 3
  
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    SWK 491 - Internship


    Experience once a week in a Christian setting that focuses on service to persons with many human needs under the supervision of faculty. Both semesters.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    Open only to students in the Social Service Interdisciplinary Program.

    Credits: 3
  
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    SWK 591 - Social Work Practice III


    A capstone course with a focus on beginning generalist social work practice with individuals, families, groups and communities. This course includes social planning, social policy and social action with a social change focus. Projects and presentations demonstrating competence in social work practice are required. Coordinated with Seminar and Field III. First semester.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    Open only to B.S.W. candidates.

    Credits: 5
  
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    SWK 592 - Seminar and Field III


    One seminar session each week in which the block placement field instruction (four days each week in a professional/social work setting) is coordinated with the classroom instruction of Social Work Practice III. The seminar provides the student opportunities to share and discuss their practice experiences of actual client services. The class provides a structured learning experience that provides students with opportunities to compare their field placement experiences, and integrate faith, theory and practice. The course also examines the use of professional supervision to enhance learning and the development of professional use of self. First semester.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    Open only to B.S.W. candidates. Must be taken concurrently with SWK 591.

    Credits: 1
  
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    SWK 593 - Field Practicum


    A four-day-a week block placement in a professional social work setting. Students are supervised for the 14 week duration of the placement by an experienced Social Work field instructor. This practicum is coordinated with the classroom instruction of Social Work Practice III. First Semester.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    Open only to B.S.W. candidates. Application procedure is required for field practicum.

    Credits: 8

Special Education

  
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    SPE 211 - Foundations of Special Education


    A course designed to introduce the regular classroom teacher to the philosophical, historical, legal, and ethical foundations of special education. Students engage in a study of the categories of disabilities, educational adaptations, and family and life span issues. Includes a field experience practicum in an inclusive classroom setting to observe and develop competency in working with exceptionalities in the regular classroom. Both semesters.

    Credits: 3
  
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    SPE 262 - Typical and Atypical Development and Learning


    A course designed to examine typical and atypical developmental milestones and how individuals acquire and process information. Students examine and apply the implications of child development and learning for adapting living and learning environments to accommodate ability differences. Either semester.

    Credits: 3
  
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    SPE 311 - Inclusionary Practices


    A course designed to study the methodology for teaching exceptional children in inclusive education settings. Multi-disciplinary teaming, collaboration, management, instructional strategies, and home/school partnerships are examined.  Cultural and learning diversity are addressed in the context of an inclusive education setting. Includes a field experience practicum in an inclusive setting to observe and develop competencies in working with exceptionalities in the regular classroom. Both semesters.

    Credits: 3
  
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    SPE 363 - Collaboration and Communication


    A course designed to develop and facilitate knowledge of the stages and phases of the consultation process and to appraise the influence of situational and cultural variables that affect positive interaction with school and community professionals, paraprofessionals, parents, and students. Either semester.

    Credits: 3
  
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    SPE 461 - Diagnosis and Evaluation of the Exceptional Learner


    A course designed to acquaint students with the procedures used in a comprehensive appraisal and assessment system based upon federal and state guidelines for students with disabilities. Application of diagnostic results to classroom instruction is a focus.  Issues in the evaluation of special-needs students are addressed. First semester.

    Credits: 3
  
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    SPE 462 - Developmental and Diagnostic Reading Interventions


    A course designed to examine and practice using research-validated literacy programs which incorporate evaluating and monitoring systems and instructional strategies to target deficiencies and increase language and literacy proficiency. Either semester.

    Credits: 3
  
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    SPE 463 - Methods of Teaching Children with High Incidence Disabilities


    A course designed to develop educational adaptations and accommodations needed to meet the needs of students with “high incidence disabilities” in a regular classroom setting.  Included in this category are learning disabilities, emotional/behavioral disturbances, speech and language impairments, mental retardation, and other health impairments. Transdisciplinary teaming, social service agencies, professional organizations, and family and lifespan issues are examined. First semester.

    Credits: 3
  
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    SPE 464 - Methods of Teaching Children with Low Incidence Disabilities


    A course designed to develop educational adaptations and accommodations needed to meet the needs of students with “low incidence disabilities” in a variety of alternative settings. Included in this category are hearing and visual impairments, multiple disabilities, orthopedic impairments, autism, deafness, deaf-blindness, and traumatic brain injury. Transdisciplinary teaming, social service agencies, professional organizations, and family and lifespan issues are examined. First semester.

    Credits: 3
  
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    SPE 465 - Assessing and Managing Students with Behavioral Disabilities


    A course that studies the factors related to challenging social and emotional behaviors and to determine behavior supports and instructional methodologies that will lead to self-determined learning. Either semester.

    Credits: 3
  
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    SPE 491 - Delivery Systems in Least Restrictive Environments


    A course designed to practice effective instructional delivery systems for reading, writing, and math for students with high incidence disabilities in the regular classroom, including the use of assistive technology, support services intervention, and collaborative professional and family partnerships. J Term.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    All pre-student teaching special education course work.

    Credits: 2
  
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    SPE 492 - Delivery Systems in More Restrictive Environments


    A course designed to practice effective instructional delivery systems for small group reading, writing, and math for students with low incidence disabilities in the special education setting, including the use of assistive technology, support services intervention, and collaborative professional and family partnerships. J Term and summer.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    All pre-student teaching special education course work.

    Credits: 1

Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages

  
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    TSL 401 - Cultural and Linguistic Diversity in the Classroom


    A course which examines issues related to the teaching of English Language Learners in the K-12 classroom. Topics covered include crosscultural awareness, ELL-sensitive content teaching, government policies, ESL/bilingual program models, TESOL and PA PreK-12 English Language Proficiency Standards, collaboration of mainstream and ESL teachers, standardized testing, special needs assessment, student and family advocacy, and school and community services. First semester and alternate summers.

    Credits: 3
  
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    TSL 421 - Introduction to Second Language Acquisition


    A course which examines first and second language acquisition theories, including research on the influence of personality, individual learning, and cognitive styles on success in language learning. The course focuses on the practical application of research findings to the teaching of English to speakers of other languages. Current and past methods of language teaching are evaluated as to their effectiveness in the ESL classroom. The course includes two ESL classroom observation experiences. First semester and alternate summers.

    Credits: 3
  
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    TSL 422 - Multicultural Issues in TESOL


    A course that explores cultural issues involved in teaching English as a second or foreign language. The course examines the connection between language and culture, crosscultural communication, and acculturation issues. Either semester.

    Credits: 2
  
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    TSL 431 - Language Fundamentals for TESOL


    A course to acquaint students with the principles of language in general and English in particular which are useful for analyzing, understanding, and teaching the form, meaning, function, and pronunciation of English structures. Emphasis is on developing the language awareness and teaching techniques necessary for effective teaching of English grammar and pronunciation within a communicative framework. Second semester and alternate summers.

    Credits: 3
  
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    TSL 432 - TESOL Methods and Materials


    A practical course focusing on techniques and activities designed to teach English as a second or foreign language for all proficiency levels. Students learn to evaluate learners’ needs, plan both focused and integrated-skill lessons, assess learner progress, use and adapt published textbooks, and prepare their own materials. Second semester and alternate summers.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    TSL 421

    Credits: 3
  
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    TSL 591 - TESOL Practicum


    A field experience providing observation and teaching practice in an ESL classroom. Candidates for K-12 teacher certification spend the majority of the practicum experience (minimum 10 hours) in a K-12 ESL classroom, while students preparing to teach adult immigrants or in an EFL adult setting are placed in an adult classroom. In both K-12 and adult venues, the practicum includes observation of an experienced ESL teacher, interaction with ESL students, and teaching practice. Note: Overseas practicum experiences may be arranged on an individual basis. Both semesters and summer.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    TSL 421, TSL 432 (TSL 432 may be taken concurrently)

    Credits: 1

Theology

  
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    THE 100 - Introduction to Christian Theology


    An introduction to major doctrines of Christianity and to theological method: biblical, systematic, and historical theology. The relevance of the truths of these doctrines to life is explored. Both semesters.

    Credits: 3
  
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    THE 301 - Church History


    A study of the church from A.D. 100 to the present. Attention is given to important historical events, the development of church doctrine, and the relationship of the church to society. Both semesters.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    THE 100

    Credits: 3
  
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    THE 311 - The Triune God


    A study of the nature and work of the God of the Bible in His triunity, including an exploration of the implications for the Christian life. Both semesters.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    THE 100

    Credits: 3
  
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    THE 312 - The Narrative of Redemption


    A study of God’s work in bringing salvation to the world from the original creation to the new creation through Jesus Christ, tracing the development of the doctrine through church history. Both semesters.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    THE 100

    Credits: 3
  
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    THE 321 - The Gospel and Society


    A study of the Gospel of Luke and the book of Acts with emphasis on the relationship of God’s people to each other and the world. First semester.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    THE 100

    Credits: 3
  
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    THE 331 - History of Doctrine


    A study of the major Christian doctrines and their development through church history from the 2nd century to the present. Second semester.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    THE 100

    Credits: 3
  
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    THE 341 - The Early Church in Asia Minor


    A study tour focusing on the important personages, places, and events concerning the book of Acts and early Christian history. The course is taught on location in either Turkey, Greece, and/or Italy (Rome). To receive credit for the course students are required to complete an exam, additional reading assignments, and a research project. Summer session.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    THE 100

    Credits: 3
  
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    THE 342 - The Reformation in England and Scotland


    A study tour focusing on the important individuals and events of the Reformation in both England and Scotland. The course is taught on location in London, Oxford, Stratford, Cambridge, York and Edinburgh. Each student wishing to receive credit for the course is required to complete additional reading assignments and a research project. Summer session.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    THE 100

    Credits: 3
  
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    THE 343 - The Reformation in Germany and Switzerland


    A study tour focusing on the important individuals and events of the Reformation in both Germany and Switzerland. The course is taught on location in Wittenberg, Marberg, Worms, Zurich and Basil. Each student wishing to receive credit for the course is required to complete an exam, additional reading assignments and a research project. Summer session.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    THE 100

    Credits: 3
  
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    THE 401 - Apologetics


    A study of the defense of the Gospel based on arguments for truth concerning God, man, and salvation in interaction with various approaches to truth both past and present. Both semesters.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    THE 100

    Credits: 3
  
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    THE 431 - Old Testament Theology


    An introduction to the study of the message of the Hebrew Scriptures by analyzing the primary theological themes found throughout the Old Testament corpus of literature. The unity of this theology is emphasized along with the study of the unique contributions made by the various biblical authors. Either semester.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    THE 100

    Credits: 3
  
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    THE 432 - New Testament Theology


    An introductory study of New Testament Theology with attention to the content, structure and meaning of the New Testament writings. Either semester.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    THE 100

    Credits: 3
  
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    THE 433 - Biblical Anthropology


    A study of the teaching about man from Old and New Testaments. Either semester.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    THE 100

    Credits: 3
  
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    THE 434 - Theology of Mark


    A study of the theology of Mark. Either semester.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    BIB 211, THE 100

    Credits: 3
  
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    THE 435 - Doctrine of Sin


    A study of the biblical doctrine of sin and its development throughout the history of the Christian Church. Special emphasis is placed on the problem of evil, how sin is transmitted to humanity and how sin is to be defeated in the life of the believer. Either semester.

    Prerequisites & Notes
    THE 100

    Credits: 3
 

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